This would be my preferred explanation, and not terribly different from:2. Related to this, there is anacoluthon in Paul and even more so in Peter with participles that have no direct connection to a finite verb.
Anacolutha in Paul is more common than one would assume and our exegetical tradition, including the creation of such categories as "imperatival participle," tends to obscure them.(2) this is a sentence fragment produced in normal speech.
Statistics: Posted by Stephen Carlson — July 9th, 2018, 9:31 pm